[R-0018] S3. Child Development

Citation: Easterbrooks, S. R., Lederberg, A. R. & Connor, C. M. (2010). Contributions of the emergent literacy environment to literacy outcomes for young children who are deaf. American Annals of the Deaf, 155, 467-480.

Abstract: Specific characteristics of early literacy environments support hearing children’s emergent literacy. The researchers investigated these characteristics’ role in emergent literacy in young deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children, using the Early Language and Literacy Classroom Observation (ELLCO; M. W Smith, Dickinson, Sangeorge, & Anastasopoulos, 2002). Eighteen self-contained classrooms of preschool, kindergarten, and first-grade DHH children (N = 40) were studied. Hierarchical linear analysis was used to examine study participants’ classroom environment and growth in emergent literacy skills. Correlations suggested that classroom environment was more closely related to vocabulary and phonological awareness in DHH children than in typically hearing children. Major differences among classrooms were also indicated. However, growth in children’s skills did not correlate strongly with attributes captured by the ELLCO. This suggests that classrooms promoting emergent literacy skills acquisition in DHH children may differ from classrooms of typically developing hearing children.

Smith, M. W, Dickinson, D. K., Sangeorge, A., & Anastasopoulos, L. (2002). User’s guide to the Early Language and Literacy Classroom Observation Toolkit (research ed.). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Integration: Literacy outcomes for children who are deaf or hard of hearing have been notoriously weaker across multiple measures and over time when compared to the outcomes of their peers with normal hearing (Holt, 1994; Traxler, 2000). Early or emergent literacy instruction may provide important support for better literacy outcomes. Further, the trajectory established during the emergent literacy stage continues well into the schoolyears both for hearing children (Foster & Miller, 2007; Stanovich, 1992) and for deaf and hard of hearing children (Colin, Magnan, Ecalle, & Leybaert, 2007), implicating preschool literacy instruction as a key factor in promoting better literacy outcomes. Effective literacy instruction appears to be dependent upon what is taught (Kyle & Harris, 2006; LaSasso & Mobley, 1997), how it is taught (Swanwick & Watson, 2007), and the environments in which it is taught (Kaderavek & Pakulski, 2007).

Content Focus: Inclusion; Instruction and Teaching; Language and Literacy Experiences

Notes: Colin, S., Magnan, A., Ecalle, J., & Leybaert, J. (2007). Relation between deaf children’s phonological skills in kindergarten and word recognition performance in first grade. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 48, 139-146.

Foster, W A., & Miller, M. (2007). Development of the literacy achievement gap: A longitutlinal study of kindergarten through third grade. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools,38,173-181.

Holt, J. A. (1994). Classroom attributes and achievement test scores for deaf and hard of hearing students. American Annals of the Deaf, 139, 430-437.

Kaderavek, J. H., & Pakulski, L A. (2007). Facilitating literacy development in young children with hearing loss. Seminars in Speech and Language, 28, 69-78.

Kyle, F. E., & Harris, M. (2006). Concurrent correlates and predictors of reading and spelling achievement in deaf and hearing school children. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, II, 273-288.

LaSasso, C, & Mobley, R. (1997). National survey of reading instruction for deaf students in the United States. Volta Review, 99, 31-60.

Stanovich, K. E. (1992). Speculation on the causes and consequences of individual differences in eariy reading acquisition. In R B. Gough, L C. Ehri., & R, Treiman (Eds), Reading acquisition (pp. 307-342). Hillsdale, NJ: Eribaum.

Swanwick. R.. & Wat.son. L (2005). Literacy in the homes of young deaf children: Common and distinct features of spoken language and sign bilingual environments. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 5, 53-78.

Traxler, C. (2000). The Stanford Achievement Test, ninth edition: National norming and performance standards for deaf and hard of hearing students. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 5, 337-348.